Nice, that's some sick range. Kauai has no fuel dock so if you're coming this way you'll need to arrange for delivery. Sounds like a lot of room, good luck and keep trudging on, you're making good progress. Aloha
-keeping the battery weight low
-no more "sealed compartments" that are actually full of water
-allows transferring fuel fore and aft for ballast weight
-new holds can be used for bait tank, cooler, scuba tank storage, etc.
-if the shaft or rudder ever leak, it _should_ be confined to single compartment. I am not counting on this by any means, but it's a nice thought. I doubt the boat would stay afloat with full fish boxes, full fuel tanks AND a flooded engine box, but with a light load it _could_ help I guess.
The engine access isn't ideal right along the sides of the engine, but I will go wider with the above-deck portion of the engine box to make access better. I am leaving enough room aft of the engine so that a person can fit in there. The width between the engine stringers is 30 inches. I think I will be able to access the engine pretty good. Might bolt a wooden jig of the engine to the gear once everything is glassed in place so I can design the boat around that.
Sharpened the edges of the tunnel with a 60 grit sanding block and 80 grit air file. I think it looks pretty good. Going to radius the edge slightly more. I want to put a few layers of glass on the outside of the hull, but it looks so damn good I don't want to mess it up. Thinking I might just do a few layers of fiberglass cloth and then a light layer of mat over top.
Got the 1.75" AQ22 prop shaft today. They sent it UPS to hawaii and at 60 lbs it wasn't cheap.
This is with a 22" prop. The prop isn't pressed all the way on the shaft yet. It still has an inch to go. This is the first mockup. I think the shaft length looks dead on. I have about an extra 1/2" to remove the prop without removing the rudder and the shaft is about 2 inches off of the forward engine box bulkhead.
Since my ideal prop is probably 20 or 21 inches, I am going to go with a 1.5" clearance with this 22" prop. It is my starting point because I got this prop cheap and bigger props generally mean better fuel economy. I am not going to run this prop if I cannot reach the recommended RPMs. The recommended prop tip clearance is about 2-2.5 inches and that's what I'll have when I change to the recommended prop size. Even with a 21-inch prop I will have a 2 inch clearance which I think is acceptable.
Next steps are to get the gear in place, install a strut, then glass in the stern tube.... Might be looking for someone on maui to weld a strut if I can't find something off the shelf...
Met with a local boat builder and was told the last custom strut they made cost $5000. That's not going to work for me. If I can't find something "off the shelf", it is going to be cheaper for me to just re-glass the flat spot on the roof of the tunnel where the strut attaches. Good thing I haven't glassed it all to a completed thickness yet. It is only 1/4" thick right now. Hopefully I will find something that fits, but I might have to cut out the flat spot and re-do the angle if it saves me $5000.
So my next goal has become to get the strut in place. Today I got a lot done. I started bolting things together even though they are going to have to be un-bolted later.
The 22" prop I bought for $300 had a good amount of corrosion in the bore. I strapped the shaft to a table and proceeded to lap the prop using a valve grinding compound. I checked the fit with prussian blue and a Sharpie..
I lapped it by hand for 40 minutes adding compound 8 times or so. It is showing pretty good contact to the shaft, but I am going to clean the small portion of the prop bore with a dremel before it all goes together because there is a lip of grime on the skinniest portion of the prop bore.
Cleaned the ZF63IV output flange with a Scotch Guard pad and WD40. The shaft coupling looks brand new but the whole gear looks really good I'd say.
Proceeded to bolt the shaft coupling to the gear, although I will have to go back later and add Loctite 243 as per the ZF63IV manual.
I'm going to leave the black paint on the gear the way it is since it looks good already and the case is aluminum. Less paint will make it easier to rebuild when the time comes.
I aligned everything up to within 1/16" and within .05 degrees to take some pictures and get an idea of the stern tube placement. I will be widening the hole for the stern tube, but I want to get the strut epoxied in place first.
In the meantime I can measure the strut, do some glass work on the tunnel, reinstall the flywheel and think about moving the turbo to a high mount.
I sent the specs to half a dozen "foundrys" for quotes on casting a custom bronze strut. Nothing off the shelf was going to work right because the "A" angle of the strut is more than anything off the shelf (because of the tunnel roof). Marine Hardware AKA Algonac Marine Cast won me over on price and confidence that they will deliver a quality product. They are going to build me a custom pattern that exactly matches my specs. They are saying the casting will take 4-5 weeks for the pattern design and casting and will cost a total of about $2200. Strut will exceed ABYC standards. Not cheap, but I think I feel like I am getting a good deal for what I'm getting. It's not like I didn't shop around. Spent a couple weeks on it... Excited to see the strut and get it epoxied in place.
Not gonna glass in the stern tube until the strut is epoxied in place. Looks like I am doing other projects for a while until I get the strut.
Mahalo, thanks for the kind words. You should post a thread on here too. This thread has been invaluable for me too... I've gotten tons of advice from very knowledgeable people and it gives me a log of what's been done and where I need to go.... I even got hooked up with my engine from someone seeing the thread. I highly suggest doing it. Plus, I'd like to see it.
They had me do some tests and the head gasket was "confirmed" because when I pressurize the cooling system with air, the air noise coming out of oil filler hole does not change as I bar the engine over by hand.
I did an oil change, pulled the injectors, sprayed tons of WD40 into the cylinders and have been cranking the engine over religiously to feed new oil to the bearings. Hopefully I will save the bottom end....
We stripped all the paint off the top half of the engine and are preparing to pull the head. I might do one more oil change before we pull off the turbo because I'd like to crank the engine over some more with fresh oil in. Even with the oil change and all the cranking, I still see some milkiness under the valve covers...
While I have the head at the machine shop, I'm gonna send the injection pump, injectors and lines to an injection shop and have them reconditioned.
I'm pretty sure the block is good because the engine started up EASY from a cold-dead start with no blowby and no smoke. After stripping the paint, the engine definitely has some hours on it...
Since we pulled the injectors, I was finally able to measure the injector nozzle tips. They are 9mm which means this engine is pre-1991 because in 1991 they went to 7mm injector tips. Since it has the larger expansion tank, it is post-1987 so the engine is dated somewhere between 1987 and 1991. Probably not gonna get much more accurate than that.
When I get it all back together, the engine should be good because it will have...
-reconditioned heat exchanger
-new water pump
-new gaskets on the top end
-new raw water pump
-new water pump
-rebuilt fuel pump/fuel lines
-rebuilt or new injectors
I also did some other stuff like acid wash the expansion tank, flushed the cooling system, etc.
I suppose I should be upset, but I'm actually stoked because now I know why the engine was probably pulled out of it's last boat.
I still think I got a "fair" price based on what was known of the engine, which was basically nothing.
If I have to rebuild it, I should still come out well under the price of a reman, which for me is a fair deal. I personally don't mind the mechanical work too much *knock on wood*. It's the fiberglassing that I really consider a pain in the ass. Engine work is fun compared to that.
Hopefully, it's just the top end I need to rebuild and the lower bearings and pistons are OK.
I got an oil sample report done for $20 and there was so much water that they could not accurately calculate the metals. They did find sodium which means the heat exchanger had probably been leaking into the coolant system. Not good. So the engine had a blown head gasket, leaky CAV pump, in addition to a leaky heat exchanger. No wonder they pulled it. I just hoping the engine wasn't ran too long with water in the oil. Hopefully it overheated and was shut down before any bearing or piston damage was done. That's what I'm hoping anyway.
I ordered a compression tester and if the compression is good on the engine, I'm just gonna roll with it and redo the head and hope for the best on the bottom end. In the meantime, I've done three oil changes. I've been cranking the engine over for 20 minutes or so (off and on to let the starter cool) between oil changes. The oil is finally coming out not milky anymore. Just using cheap $10/gallon Walmart oil to do the flushes. I'll switch back to Delo 400 when I really get the engine going.
The engine starts easy and runs good with no weird sounds, smoke or blowby (with no load). If the compression test checks out, I think the engine will be fine. What do I know though.............................
Everything's looking lined up This whole time I have been measuring everything on the tunnel as accurately as I could "using the thickness of a Bic pen". I made a paper template of the strut base and centered it on the flat spot I made on the tunnel roof. Popped some bolt holes as accurately as I could, but allowing 1/16" of play to move the strut around over the flat spot (I drilled 7/16" holes and I'm using 1/4 bolts).
Looks like everything is lined up nicely with the strut centered on the flat spot. Less than a 1" gap between the prop and strut which is good considering it has to be "less than 1 shaft diameter".
A lot of thinking going on this week. Not too much work being completed, but I'm about to kick the glassing into high gear.
The only work I did was fitting the fiberglass shaft tube:
I thought I was ready to float the strut in with epoxy, but after thinking long and hard about it, I think the next best step is to finish glassing the tunnel to a completed thickness (3/4" to 1" thickness according to the guys on boatdesign.net).
As per Tony's advice, I am using the v-drive as a jig for aligning everything. Now that I know everything lines up perfectly, I am ready to finish glassing the tunnel.
I originally wanted to glass the shaft tube in as I built up thickness on the tunnel, that way it is all connected. I now realize that the only function of the stern tube is to keep water out of the boat and there will never be any real stress on it, especially since I am going to grind it off flush on the bottom of the boat. Because of this, I'm going to glass in the stern tube after I complete the tunnel. This will allow me to epoxy the strut and v-drive into place basically at the same time. I'll then do a feeler gauge alignment on the v-drive and then glass in the shaft tube.
But, first I need to finish glassing the tunnel and then stringers. If I had to do it over again, I'd have done the tunnel first and then stringers, but live and learn I guess.
I'm gonna cut a recession into the forward bulkhead to make it easier to work on the shaft coupling (for shaft alignment and shaft seal change purposes).
This week, I ordered a few special tools for the engine. I know I have either a head gasket leak or a cracked head (or both). Apparently, Cummins went to 7mm injector tips in 1991 because the heads were cracking between the injectors and push rod holes. My injector tips are 9mm which means my engine is pre-1991. Going from 9mm to 7mm added more beef into the head casting.
I ordered the following tools which will be here in the next couple days:
-Cummins compression tester with adapter
-Cummins barring tool
-Dial bore indicating gauge (for measuring cylinder trueness once I pull the head)
Some of the guys on BoatDiesel say compression tests are worthless, but I'm gonna do a couple compression tests anyway before I pull the head. The compression test should give me an idea of the cylinder health relative to the other cylinders. This will give me a better overall idea of the engine health and the compression tester will be a good tool to have later on anyway.
Once I pull the head, I'll also measure the cylinders for trueness with the dial bore indicator gauge and then decide whether or not I will rebuild the bottom end too. The oil pump pressure tested good which is definitely a good thing and apparently these engines can get 30,000 hours on the bottom end without requiring a rebuild (for all I know, this engine DOES have 30,000 hours though....)
I did four 3 oil changes/flushes with cheap-o Walmart 10W-40 to get the coolant out of the crank case from the leaky head gasket. Been cranking the engine over religiously with the injectors out in 45 second spurts for weeks now. The oil is looking clean now. One last oil change today, a compression test and then I will pull the head.
Depending on the head condition, I might just bite the bullet and spend the $1800 on a new OEM Cummins head (complete with valves, etc). It sure would be nice to have a brand new top end. $1800 is extremely cheap compared to a Volvo or Yanmar head. We will see though...
Pulled head off today. Cylinders look good to me. I don't see any visible damage or cracks on anything.
Gonna see how much the machine shop will charge to resurface the exhaust manifold/cap/turbo surfaces when I drop the head off. If this head is good, gonna run with it. Date stamped on exhaust manifold: 6-29-1985. Not sure if this is accurate to when the engine was assemble, but this pig is definitely old. I have faith in it though.
More to come soon when I have some more free time to mess with it.
Thanks. There was no rust on any of the cylinders or valves. I am thinking the turbo exhaust is wet in the pic probably because the coolant leaked when I pulled the turbo off. The gasket surface does look like crap though, so it is definitely possible. Gonna try and have these resurfaced before I reassemble everything. I am going to a high-mount turbo anyway since it will simplify the exhaust and provide better engine access and raise the turbo higher above the waterline.
I pressurized the coolant system with shop air and there was a loud hiss noise coming out the oil filler hole that did not change as I barred the engine over by hand. No oil came out the oil cooler port so it was probably not that. There was a constant, very soft hiss coming out of both the turbo exhaust and intake tube. The guys on boatdiesel said since it remained constant, it was probably the head gasket.
Head gasket does show some rust and corrosion. Taking the head to the machine shop tomorrow.
More engine work this week. Head is at the machine shop getting checked for cracks. If it's not cracked, I COULD roll with it and use it because it will save me a couple thousand bucks since I won't have to upgrade to the newer 7mm injectors with a new head. This is a lower HP model so hoping the head never developed cracks.
I have the pan off and everything looks pretty clean. No large chunks of metal in the bottom of the pan. Just a really fine black "silt" like material. I've seen way worse sludge pics on the internet. Looks like the timing pin broke of and ended up in the pan at some point. Can't find any damage caused by it. Good thing it is plastic I guess.
Thinking I might just pull a few of the bearing caps to look at the surfaces and perhaps do a plastigauge check on them. If they look good, I might not mess with any more of them since the guys on Boatdiesel say this bottom end can get 20,000 hours without a rebuild. That is not considering the engine COULD have been ran with a mix of 50/50 coolant/oil in the crankcase for an unknown amount of time.
Everything looks pretty good to me so far. The inside of the engine where the oil is looks brand new to me. Amazing how it can look like crap on the outside, but pristine on the inside.
So many ways I could go with this.... Hell, I will probably just end up getting a new head and redoing the bottom bearings for peace of mind. I've gone this far already....
(Old-style head with 9mm injector holes)
(Apparently these old heads with the 9mm injectors crack around the valve seat and injector hole, so Cummins went to a 7mm injector hole in 1991 to add more beef to the casting in this area)
(Oil cooler doesn't look amazing, but it held air pressure for sure. Apparently, they only have 7 plates nowadays (not sure why). Mine is the older style with 9 plates.)
(Oil cooler cavity is where most of the crap collects in the block apparently. Mine has a considerable amount of rust in the bottom. Oil sample mentioned salt in the oil, which could have been from a leaky heat exchanger. Salt water perhaps could have ended up in the block when the head gasket ruptured (or however the coolant got in the crank case). replaced the oil cooler and filled the coolant side of the block up with the pan off. It held the water so I am pretty sure the block is fine. This is a low HP model engine anyway).
(Pressure tested oil cooler to 130 PSI with some rubber plugs from Ace hardware).
(A little sludge in bottom of pan, but nothing crazy I think. I felt around with my hand and only found about 3 solid pieces that were bigger than a piece of sand. Most of it was very fine "silt" like material which is normal).
(I did find the plastic fuel pump timing pin in the bottom. Doesn't look like to went though any gears, just looks like it broke off and fell in the bottom of the oil pan. Pretty common for these engines.)
Tempted to just get this thing back together with all new gaskets and rebuilt injectors. I would save money which could put towards just get a new long block down the road. Or I could get the new head now and run it until time to get a new short block. Not really sure...
Today as Tropical Storm Darby hit, I pulled the #1 crank main and rod bearing caps. Measured both with a plastigage and they were both about .0017. Spec is .0045 so when combined with the previous measurements I did on the cylinder bores, I'm pretty confident that the lower end is fine and just needs to be bolted back together properly. I did not check the crank for "walk" fore and aft, but I don't think that is going to be a problem.
Machine shop confirmed today that the head is cracked in every cylinder. Looks like I'm getting a new head and injectors. Bottom end seems fine so I'm gonna run with it and stop chasing imaginary problems. Hopefully I get lucky on the bottom end and I get another 15,000 hours out of it. If not, I can plug in a new short block down the road and have basically a "new" engine.
Gonna be waiting on a bunch of parts to arrive on the slow boat so will probably switch back to fiberglassing for a while.
This boat has been stupid expensive over the years. Labor of love... Hopefully it comes out good.
Gonna move the turbo from a low-mount to a high mount. Replacing the head with the newest premium Cummins head (including valves). Rebuilding Lucas CAV pump, new Bosch Injectors and some other random parts...
1x 3904849 Retaining Ring (for timing pin)
1x 3902735 Screw (self tapping for plate cover on bellhousing)
1x 3918257 Gasket (oil cooler) $18.00
1x 3918256 Gasket (oil cooler core) $30.00
1x 3905786 Dip stick $31.00
1X CYHD 7433NX 6BT 5.9 Head CPL 742 head
1X Head Bolt Set 26 pc kit $180.00
6x 2058rx Bosch 7mm Injectors INJ 2058rx $175.00 ea
1x 3908086 Cover/Intake Manifold (hi mount front exhaust turbo) $63.00
1x 3909548 Hose, flexible Turbo oil supply hose (hi mount front exhaust turbo) $70.00
1x 3914388 Gasket Turbo Oil Drain (hi mount front exhaust turbo) $5.00
1x 3918579 Turbo Oil Drain connection (hi mount front exhaust turbo) $66.00
1x 3903745 Hose, plain Turbo Drain Hose (hi mount front exhaust turb $25.00
8x 3907978 Stud (turbo studs) $4.00
2x 3916300 Turbo gaskets COMPOSITE gaskets for rough surfaces! sbmar.com/product/composite turbo charger water cover to manifold gasket/ ) $35.00
1x 3911536 Oil pan gasket $18.00
1x 3907617 Tappet cover gasket $22.00
1x 3917778 Brace, Tube $12.00
2x 3917747 Vibration Isolator $6.00
2x 3904519 Brace, Tube $8.00
1x 3902425 Washer, Sealing $6.00
1x 3904386 Plug, Threaded $12.00
1x 3900216 Washer, Sealing $6.00
1x 3911638 Plug, Threaded $12.00
2x 3907998 Fuel pump timing pin housing screws $2.00
1x 3914385 Front gear case gasket $31.00
1x 3904353 Front oil seal (gear case/crank seal) $37.00
Thnking about also sending off the leaky CAV pump to be rebuilt which is gonna be another $1K. Highly considering resealing the pump myself to save money and partly for the knowledge part of it. I suppose it's worth a shot as long as the kit isn't too expensive. If this guy can do it.... ..... Not sure yet tho. Trying to source a good kit.... I've done carbs/transfer cases etc. Don't see this being much different.
Waiting on engine parts so back to glassing for a while. Taking my sweet time on this part, trying to get everything right. I came to a point where the next step was to epoxy the strut and v-drive mounts in place. For alignment purposes, I can't do any of that until I have both the tunnel and the stringers glassed to a completed thickness.
Since I need to finish the tunnel and stringers next, I spent 3 hours grinding the area between the two main stringers with FRESH 36 grit grinding discs so the new layers have a good surface to stick to. I also removed any bubbles and sweat marks in the laminate. I will do a heavy acetone wipe before we lay any glass.
Built a temporary "fence" around the front of my temporary "shop" to help protect the engine from wind/dust/dirt while I have the head and oil pan off. Tied a 20x30' tarp over the top of the whole thing. I also made a bigger table to cut up fiberglass fabric. The local sail maker inspired me to make a huge table to work on. Much better now. Everything is clean and I no longer have to worry about the glass pieces blowing away. This will enable me to prep bigger pieces of glass and keep it nice and clean, something I was lacking before.
Still need to cut the glass fabric to size for this next job. This part will include 3 more complete layers over the entire tunnel that run up the stringers a few inches as well as some extra layers over the rudder/strut areas.
Later on, I want to incorporate some Nytex into the tunnel, especially the rudder/strut areas. I will also lay some layers that overlap to the top of stringers. Once that is done, we will do more layers on the stringers themselves and also layers on the other sides of the stringers. The tunnel layers will be overlapped by layers that extend outward towards the sides of the hull, which is the strongest arrangement I can think of.
So far the tunnel thickness is about 1/4". Boatdesign.net says it needs to be 1/2" thick. I'm gonna make it about 1" thick for good measure (thicker where the rudder/strut go).
Trying to coordinate and get two other experienced fiberglass guys over here to help do glassing during the cooler part of the days. Gonna be nice to get these huge glass sessions out of the way so I can do some smaller jobs on my own. I want the tunnel to have many large solid pieces of glass with chemical bonds and these require several people to lay right with no bubbles.